Metro Manila is the most densely populated and most urbanized region in the country. It is the
financial, industrial, and commercial hub of the Philippines. Air quality management in the
region is mandated to the Environmental Management Bureau of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources though other institutions like the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute and Manila Observatory are also doing monitoring work. Monitoring data show that TSP levels have exceeded the annual National Ambient Air Quality Guideline Value while PM2.5 levels have exceeded the WHO annual and daily guideline values. Several steps have been taken regarding air quality management. Examples of these measures are setting emission standards for mobile and stationary sources, anti-smoke belching campaigns, and phasing out of leaded gasoline. However, much still needs to be done. Some of these are the establishment of PM2.5 guideline values, promotion of alternative means of transportation, improvement and expansion of the public transport system, proper implementation of vehicle inspection and maintenance, stricter implementation of anti-smoke belching campaign, and better traffic management.